Sunday, 5 November 2006

22 pennons and a standard

I've noticed that the Austrian manuscripts I've been looking at, including one in particular have quite a few pictures of pennons being carried in battle standard manner, of flying from flagpoles. Or at least quite a few by 12th C illustration standards.

Fol.26 Storm on the lake, Fol. 46 Christ and Mary Magdalen in the garden,

Fol. 60 Ascension, and Fol. 86v Heraclius brings the cross back, Periscope book, Saint Erentrud Abbey, Salzburg around 1140 (München, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Cod. lat. 15903)

Fol. 27v Ressurection and Fol. 35 Ascension. Regensburg, 1101/1200 (Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Inventar-Nr. 339)

Fol. 95v Initial C with Christ Ascending Brevarium, Michaelburn Abbey, 1161-71, (Cod. lat. 8271 Munchen Staatsbibliothek,)

Once you start looking, quite a few others in lit. (none so many as the Austrians though) Here's a handful:

Fol. 23r the 3 Marys at the tomb Fecamp Psalter, Normandy (Fécamp?) c. 1180 (Den Haag, KB, 76 F 13)

folio 6 Ascension, Lippoldsberger Evangeliara> 1150-70 Helmarshausen, Saxony, Germany

f. 7v Detail of Moses and Gideon in armour with a shield.
Psalter of Henry the Lion Helmarshausen, NW. Germany, c. 1168-1189 (British Library MS. Lansdowne 381)

f.30 The Virgin enthroned, between two archangels (bearing standards) Winchester Psalter. Winchester, England, 1121-61 (British Library Ms Cotton Nero C. IV)

Fol. 51r David and Goliath Arras psalter Northwest France (Arras?); c. 1175 (Den Haag, KB, 76 E 11)

Joshua's assembly of the 'princes of the people' , Winchester Bible
Winchester, England c. 1160-80

The Battle of the Lamb, Northern Spain, c.1200

Fol. 21v The Resurrection: Christ steps out of his tomb and
Fol. 1r
The knights of the cross, led by St. George, pursue the Saracens. St. Bertin Monastery ?, North-western France c. 1200. (The Hague, KB, 76 F 5)

p49The Harrowing of Hell, St Albans Psalter. St Albans Abbey, Herefordshire, England c.1135

Redemption window (central section), Châlons-sur-Marne Cathedral, northeast France c. 1147. (Châlons-sur-Marne, Cathedral Treasury)

King Vratislav of Bohemia and other figures. Wall painting, 1134 Znojmo,Sth of Czech Republic (Znojmo castle chapel.)

Christ appearing to the disciples, St Peter’s Antiphonary, Salzburg 1147/67 (MS. S.N.2700, p. 66z, Vienna, Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek)

Illustration to the Book of Numbers, Lambeth Bible. Canterbury or St Albans, England c. 1145—55 (Lambeth Palace Library, MS. 3, folio 66 verso)

Most of the designs follow a general plan - a central rectangle with about 4 ties to a pole and 2-4 streamers. The different colours of these in some pennons above imply these sections may be made from different pieces of fabric. Several of the pennons show reinforcements where you'd expect them - on either border of the central section, where seams might be while others seem to be cut in one piece. Few of the pennons have fully fledged heraldric designs - mostly just pretty colours or the cross of god. This could be just the artist's laziness, but it seems unlikely when they have drawn designs on the pennons.

The standard from the Winchester Bible was the only one I found on this search. The picture is in a very byzantine style, so the standards may represnet byzantine practise rather than English.

No comments: